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Research Paradigm


Research Lens:

The ontology and epistemology I align myself with is constructivist/ interpretive.  As a researcher I strive to construct understandings and meanings through participant interactions. My methodological approach to date has been experimental design using case study. I have used observations, semi-structured interviews, artifacts and mobile ethnography for data collection methods. I follow Yin's (1984) approach to case study because I believe it is a rigorous process and constructs truth through interaction. ​

Crotty (1998), discussed intentionality that acknowledges an interactional component of constructing meaning that is neither objective nor subjective.  This viewpoint explains why I put myself on the continuum where I do. Crotty also discussed realism, relativism and idealism. These are factors in my reflexivity that I am still exploring and will shape how I conduct research and process data in the future.

  • Realism: what one actually sees/experiences (what is there)

  • Relativism: what one sees/experiences according to contextual lens (what is conditionally there)

  • Idealism: what one sees/experiences according to one’s cognitive processes (what is thought to be there)


Image by Michele Meinke Kroll as developed from Dr. Castro's Qualitative Model

Using a constant comparative method (White and Marsh, 2006) allows the researcher to always connect themes back to theory which connect back to the research questions. Yin's case study design and methods are very structured and provide five distinct analytic techniques for high-quality analysis following the sources of evidence:

  1. Pattern Matching

  2. Explanation Building

  3. Time-Series Analysis

  4. Logic Models

  5. Cross-Case Synthesis

Crotty, Michael. (1998). The Foundations of Social Research. London: Sage publications.

White, M. D., & Marsh, E. E. (2006). Content analysis: A flexible methodology. Library trends, 55(1), 22-45.

Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Sage publications.

Research Resources- Click on book title for more information
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